Let’s Encrypt renew出现“Challenge failed for domain xxxx”

作者 | 2019年6月5日

某个私用的子域名上了Let’s Encrypt签发的证书,上周用renew命令延长证书有效期时出现下面的错误:

Saving debug log to /var/log/letsencrypt/letsencrypt.log

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Processing /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/xxx.conf
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Cert is due for renewal, auto-renewing...
Plugins selected: Authenticator standalone, Installer None
Renewing an existing certificate
Performing the following challenges:
http-01 challenge for xxxx
Waiting for verification...
----------------------------------------
Exception happened during processing of request from ('::ffff:66.133.109.36', 45260, 0, 0)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "/usr/lib64/python2.7/SocketServer.py", line 295, in _handle_request_noblock
    self.process_request(request, client_address)
  File "/usr/lib64/python2.7/SocketServer.py", line 321, in process_request
    self.finish_request(request, client_address)
  File "/usr/lib64/python2.7/SocketServer.py", line 334, in finish_request
    self.RequestHandlerClass(request, client_address, self)
  File "/usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/acme/standalone.py", line 207, in __init__
    BaseHTTPServer.BaseHTTPRequestHandler.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)
  File "/usr/lib64/python2.7/SocketServer.py", line 651, in __init__
    self.finish()
  File "/usr/lib64/python2.7/SocketServer.py", line 710, in finish
    self.wfile.close()
  File "/usr/lib64/python2.7/socket.py", line 279, in close
    self.flush()
  File "/usr/lib64/python2.7/socket.py", line 303, in flush
    self._sock.sendall(view[write_offset:write_offset+buffer_size])
error: [Errno 32] Broken pipe
----------------------------------------
Challenge failed for domain xxxx
http-01 challenge for xxxx
Cleaning up challenges
Attempting to renew cert (xxxx) from /etc/letsencrypt/renewal/xxxx.conf produced an unexpected error: Some challenges have failed.. Skipping.
All renewal attempts failed. The following certs could not be renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/xxxx/fullchain.pem (failure)

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All renewal attempts failed. The following certs could not be renewed:
  /etc/letsencrypt/live/xxxx/fullchain.pem (failure)
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1 renew failure(s), 0 parse failure(s)

IMPORTANT NOTES:
 - The following errors were reported by the server:

   Domain: xxxx
   Type:   unauthorized
   Detail: Invalid response from
   http://xxxx/.well-known/acme-challenge/vQ5zuvoh188fvC0GE8U5KnJ5yQMf1GamNzJCW-Ho-D8
   [xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx]: "<html>\n<head>\n<meta
   http-equiv=\"Content-Type\" content=\"textml;charset=UTF-8\" />\n
   <style>body{background-color:#FFFFFF}</style>"

   To fix these errors, please make sure that your domain name was
   entered correctly and the DNS A/AAAA record(s) for that domain
   contain(s) the right IP address.

一直以来用的好好的,这次突然撂挑子不干了,简直莫名其妙。根据错误信息排查潜在问题,都没毛病:

  1. ip已经正确解析,错误信息和log中可以验证这点;
  2. 绑定80端口也没问题,已经停止了Nginx;
  3. certbot已经升级到了最新版本;
  4. 用Python3.6的pip重新安装certbot并尝试,问题依旧。

自行尝试加上网找方案,一番折腾无果后暂时放弃了。心想也许是服务端抽风,说不定过几天就好了。

今天再次尝试续期证书,还是同样的问题。意识到这应该不是服务端问题,不然肯定引起大面积反应了,配置或者使用上有新问题的可能性更大。

用”invalid response”等关键字搜不出什么有用的结果。过了一会后忽然想到抛出异常中的 “::ffff:66.133.109.36” 这个ip是什么玩意?复制ip上Google查询,竟然直接找到了问题原因:用于验证域名的80端口被阿里云拦截了,certbot收到的返回与预期不符合,于是提示“challenge failed for domain xxxx”的错误。至于这个ip,应该是阿里云上层防火墙的公共ip。

接着自己尝试用80端口访问域名,果然出现拦截的页面,画风如下:

域名拦截提示

知道了问题的原因,找解决办法还是挺容易的。个人能想到的解决办法有三种:

  1. 域名备案;这个不用说了吧,说多了也不好;
  2. 暂时将域名解析到境外服务器,获取到证书更新后再解析回来;
  3. 域名验证从http改成dns。

前两个办法比较简单,本文不再多说。这里说一下用dns方式验证域名的步骤。

dns验证有两个重要参数:

  • –preferred-challenges,验证方式,填写dns或dns-01;
  • –server, 验证服务器,填写https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory

还有一个--manual参数,但在“非交互式”环境下,必须同时指定--manual-auth-hook选项。什么是“非交互式”环境?renew就是非交互式环境,因为不需要外部输出和参与;而certonly(一般)是交互式的,因为执行过程中需要用户输入必要的信息。

本人没看auth-hook脚本的写法,所以用dns方式renew证书是不可行了。那就干脆重新再获取一次证书吧!输入命令:

certbot renew -d 域名 --preferred-challenges dns --manual --server https://acme-v02.api.letsencrypt.org/directory

命令会询问是否同意记录当前机器的ip,选“y”(当然个人认为选n也没问题)。接着命令会输出dns记录的验证信息,按照指定值在dns控制台加上 TXT 记录。dns记录添加完成后等半分钟左右让记录生效,然后按回车键,记录无误的话证书就生成了。

感谢伟大的防火墙和备案机制,又让我长见识了!

参考

  1. Invalid response use certbot in ubuntu
  2. Let’s Encrypt 免费通配符 SSL 证书申请教程
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Let’s Encrypt renew出现“Challenge failed for domain xxxx”” 有 2 条评论

  1. 头像zhangsan

    博主你好,我也遇到这个问题了,阿里云未备案而无法申请证书, 我这边因为某种原因在DNS控制台添加TXT记录一直失败, 所以想请教一下你说的解决方案中第二点,暂时将域名解析到境外服务器,获取到证书更新后再解析回来;这一点该如何实施。麻烦了

    回复
    1. tlanyantlanyan 作者

      第一步: 解析dns到境外服务器;
      第二步: 用certbot命令申请证书:certbot certonly –standalone -d xxx.com
      第三步: 拷贝/etc/letsencrypt/archive下的证书和密钥文件到国内服务器;
      第四步: 配置国内服务器的Nginx/tomcat/Apache等web软件

      回复

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